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Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier

Question: Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier


a) Endothelial Cells


b) Glomerular Basement Membrane


c) Bowman’s Capsule


d) Renal Capsule


e) Mesangial Cells


Answer hint:


When a substance has passed through the glomerular capillary endothelial cells, Glomerular basement membrane and podocytes, then it enters the lumen of the tubules and it is known as glomerular filtrate. Podocytes are sometimes considered as a visceral layer of Bowman’s Capsule rather than part of Glomerulus. Mesangial cells are not part of the filtration barrier but are specialized pericytes that participate indirectly in filtration by contracting and reducing the glomerular surface area and therefore reduced glomerular filtration rate.


Answer of “Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier”


TRUE a) Endothelial Cells


TRUE b) Glomerular Basement Membrane


TRUE c) Bowman’s Capsule


False d) Renal Capsule


False e) Mesangial Cells


 



Followings are Part of Filtration Barrier

Monday, September 29, 2014

Regarding Glomerulus

Question: Regarding Glomerulus


a) is a small tuft of capillaries


b) contains podocytes


c) covered with diaphragm


d) small fenestrae of endothelial cell


e) contains mesangial cells


Answer hint:


Glomerulus is a small tuft of capillaries. Glomerular epithelial cells podocytes put out the long foot process which interdigitate with those of adjacent epithelial cells. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells contain pores. These pores are called fenestrae. They are large fenestrae, are not covered by diaphragm. Which allow access of circulating molecules to the underlying GBM. Mesangial cells lie in the central region of glomerulus.


Answer of Regarding Glomerulus


TRUE a) is a small tuft of capillaries


TRUE b) contains podocytes


FALSE c) covered with diaphragm


FALSE d) small fenestrae of endothelial cell


TRUE e) contains mesangial cells



Regarding Glomerulus

Regarding Renin

Question: Regarding Renin


a) Acts as a enzyme


b) Secreted from Juxtaglomerular apparatus


c) Secreted in response to reduced efferent arteriolar pressure


d) Reduced Na+ content in fluid of distal convoluted tubule causes secretion


e) Plasma renin activity measured in hypertension


Answer hint:


Renin referred to as a hormone although it has no peripheral receptors and rather has an enzymatic activity with which it hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Renin generates Angiotensin II which causes aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex. Then it causes hypertension. Renin is usually measured as the Plasma Renin Activity (PRA). PRA is measured especially in a case of certain disease that present with hypertension or hypotension. PRA is also raised in certain tumors. PRA measured may be compared to Plasma Aldosterone Concentration.


Answer of Regarding Renin


True a) Acts as a enzyme


True b) Secreted from Justaglomerular apparatus


False c) Secreted in response to reduced efferent arteriolar pressure


True d) Reduced Na+ content in fluid of distal convoluted tubule causes secretion


True e) Plasma renin activity measured in hypertension



Regarding Renin

Regarding Erythropoietin

Question: Regarding Erythropoietin


a) Released from Mesangial cells


b) Released from Interstitial Peritubular cells


c) is a glycoprotein


d) released from macula densa


e) Released from JG cells


Answer hint:


Erythropoietin is produced by interstitial peritubular cells in response to hypoxia. It is also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. It is a glycoprotein.


Erythropoietin is released fro


1) Kidney (85%)


2) Liver (15%)


3) Spleen


4) Brain


5) Uterus


6) Salivary Gland


So the


Answer is Regarding Erythropoietin


False a) Released from Mesangial cells


True b) Released from Interstitial Peritubular cells


True c) is a glycoprotein


False d) released from macula densa


False e) Released from JG cells



Regarding Erythropoietin

Friday, September 26, 2014

Most Common Features of Heat Stroke

Most Common Features of Heat Stroke


a) Irritation


b) Fatigue


c) Tachycardia


d) Multiple Organ Failure


e) Headache


Answer: d) Multiple Organ Failure


Heat Stroke Treatment Davidson 22 Page 104


Heat Stroke Treatment Davidson


 


 


Heat stroke clinical features



  • Hot and not sweating




  • Multiple organ failure




  • shock




  • Confusion




  • aggression



Heat exhaustion clinical features



  • Hot and sweating




  • Dehydration




  • tachycardia




  • Irritability




  • fatigue




  • headache




  • weakness



Heat stroke occurs when the core body temperature rises above 40°C and is a life­threatening condition.


 




Most Common Features of Heat Stroke

Sunday, August 31, 2014

Hard sign of UMNL include

a)      Hypertonia


b)      Superficial reflex lost


c)       Brisk knee jerk


d)      Babinski’s sign positive


UMNL paralysisUpper motor neuron lesion Davidson 22 page 1162


 


  • Inspection Normal (may be wasting in chronic lesions)

  • Tone Increased with clonus

  • Pattern of weakness Preferentially affects extensors in arms, flexors in leg Hemiparesis, paraparesis or tetraparesis

  • Deep tendon reflexes Increased

  • Plantar response Extensor (Babinski sign)

 


So the most probable answer is a) Hypertonia and d) Babinski’s sign positive


Upper Motor Neuron Lesion Davidson 22 page 1145


Lesions  affecting  the  upper  motor  neuron  result  in  increased  tone,  most  evident  in  the  strongest muscle groups (i.e. the extensors of the lower limbs and the flexors of the upper limbs).  The increased tone is more apparent during rapid stretching (‘spastic catch’), but may suddenly give way with sustained tension (the ‘clasp-knife’ phenomenon).


Hypertonia may be is seen in other disorders. They include: Cerebral palsy, Stroke, Spinal cord injury.


Babinski sign: An important neurologic examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stimulated. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble.


This reflex is normal in children up to 2 years old. It disappears as the child gets older. It may disappear as early as 12 months.


The Babinski sign is known by a number of other names: the plantar response (because the sole is the plantar surface of the foot), the toe or big toe sign or phenomenon, and the Babinski reflex, response or phenomenon.


How to Elicit Babinski sign Video


Thursday, March 07, 2013

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